Oak is considered the best material for construction of barrels for fermenting or ageing wine. It has the necessary mechanical properties for cooperage and, when new, imparts a pleasant flavour to the wine. A by-product of barrel-making is oak chips, and recently some winemakers have started to use these to impart oak flavour to wines without incurring the high cost of buying barrels. Finally, the bark of the cork oak is the source of the traditional closure for wine bottles.
Well-integrated oak may not be detectable, giving added complexity without dominating the flavour. Excessive oakiness is considered a fault by many wine lovers.
for measuring must weight.
and with a minimum of additives in the cellar.
Slight oxidation results in a loss of fruit and freshness and browning in white wines. More severe oxidation results in a high level of volatile acidity and, eventually, transformation of the wine into vinegar.
resulting in browning in white wines, loss of fruit and freshness, and possibly a high level of volatile acidity.