Vine disease caused by an aphid which attacks the root system.
Phylloxera devastated European vineyards in the 19th century. A vine disease caused by aphids which attack a vine’s root system, the solution was eventually found: to graft European vines onto resistant American rootstocks.
More recently, California has suffered from phylloxera, owing to the use of non-resistant rootstocks. A few privileged areas are free from phylloxera, notably much of Chile.