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Best new Cognacs and Armagnacs: Eight to try

It’s all too easy to rely on obvious contrasts to describe these two great French brandies. But the truth is more subtle and there are surprising commonalities. Richard Woodard explains – and recommends his top picks from the latest releases.  

Any discussion of the relative merits of Cognac and Armagnac can all too easily descend into trite generalisations. Cognac is invariably described as ‘refined’ and ‘elegant’, Armagnac as ‘rustic’ and ‘earthy’. Luckily for us, the truth is altogether less reductive, and more interesting to explore.

There are obvious contrasts between these two great French spirits that transcend mere geography, encompassing history, culture, terroir, grape variety, distillation and maturation. But there are commonalities too and, within each region, subtle contrasts and nuances that defy lazy preconceptions.

Let’s start with the land. Cognac’s vineyards span a vast area from La Rochelle south almost to Bordeaux, and from the Atlantic east beyond Angoulême. Meanwhile Armagnac’s vines are more scattered throughout a varied rural Gascon landscape.

In both cases, the most celebrated zones have a distinctive character. Cognac’s Grande Champagne enclave is famed for its deep, crumbly chalk soils; while Bas-Armagnac combines sables fauves (tawny sands) and boulbènes – a mix of silt and sand. Two highly contrasting terroirs, but both equally capable of producing ageworthy brandies with great structure, concentration and elegance.

Another obvious difference lies in grape varieties. Cognac is dominated by Ugni Blanc (Italy’s Trebbiano), which covers about 98% of its 78,000ha of vines. Armagnac, however, offers a diverse mix of the hybrid grape Baco with not only Ugni Blanc, but also the delicate but fragile Folle Blanche, and Colombard.

Cognac ageing cellar with barrels

Cognac ageing cellar

Distillation and maturation

Then there’s distillation. Cognac is made using a small-batch, double distillation process in a Charentais copper pot still, with only the heart of the distillate taken for ageing, resulting in a relatively clean eau-de-vie coming off the still at about 70-72% abv. Most Armagnacs, though, are made via a single, continuous distillation in a distinctive column still – making for a more characterful spirit typically at about 55% abv when filled into cask.

While Cognac is matured in oak barrels sourced from the Tronçais and Limousin forests, Armagnacs often use wider-grained Gascon oak, especially early in their ageing process. This means more flavour contribution – often in the form of spice – from the wood.

So far, so straightforward. The contrasts between Cognac and Armagnac could hardly be more evident. The problem is that the truth – the whole truth, anyway – is nothing like as simple.

Cognac vineyards

Vineyards in the Cognac region

A varied taste of terroir

Sure, a fine-boned Grande Champagne is probably the classic expression of Cognac, but Grande Champagne is only one small part of a vast and sprawling region. Petite Champagne’s chalk is subtly different, while the tiny Borderies cru showcases an enticing, aromatic fruity character (Camus and Martell are big fans).

Fins Bois offers heterogenous clay/limestone soils and supple, immediate charm – but there’s chalk here too. Move further out to the coastal Bois à Terroirs cru and you’ll find light, saline Cognacs from spots such as the Île de Ré.

Armagnac’s terroir is, if anything, even more diverse. The uncompromising power of a Bas-Armagnac Baco may be its most distinctive incarnation, but move east into the Ténarèze area and you can find Ugni Blanc growing on chalk, as well as boulbène soils with more obvious echoes of Bas-Armagnac itself.

Adding complexity

While it’s true to say that most Armagnac is distilled once, double-distillation is also used here. This was the original method of Armagnac production, and was revived in the region in the early 1970s when local producer Janneau was owned by Martell. Good examples of double-distilled Armagnacs today come from the likes of Janneau and Samalens.

Double-distillation in Cognac is universal, but here too different flavour profiles and characters are created, depending on how the stills are manipulated. Does the producer distil on the lees? This is more painstaking, but it can make a big difference to the complexity and texture of the spirit.

Ugni Blanc may be dominant in Cognac, but it doesn’t constitute a monoculture. You’ll still find pockets of Folle Blanche, Colombard and Folignan – a relatively new cross of Ugni Blanc and Folle Blanche. Single varietal Colombard Cognacs, with a supple, vinous fruit character, are worth seeking out for curiosity value alone – Camus sourced an interesting example from Cognac’s southwestern fringes at St-Aulaye, near Bergerac, a few years back. Meanwhile WV Baker’s Rare Pale expression (see below) is about as idiosyncratic as Cognac gets.

Cognac grapes

Cognac grapes

The human factor

For every apparent rule in Cognac and Armagnac, there’s an exception. This helps foster diversity and makes both regions endlessly fascinating to explore. There’s also one more aspect that is central to shaping this ever-changing landscape: the human hand.

From the way the vineyards are farmed to the decisions around winemaking and distillation. From the selection of casks to the choice of cellaring conditions (warm? cool? humid? dry?) and pinpointing the precise best moment for bottling. People are the most vital element in the creation of the expressions we love.

Nowhere is this more apparent than in the process of blending, the alchemical, art-meets-science process that lies behind the vast majority of Cognacs and Armagnacs on the market today. Each bottle bears not only the hallmark of the vineyard, distillery and cellar in which it was created, it also carries the signatures of the people – vigneron, distiller, chef de caves – who helped to bring it to life.

Best new Cognacs and Armagnacs: eight to try


Camus XO Cognac

Newly packaged in an elegant reusable decanter, this shows how the Borderies cru hits its stride after a decade in cask. Rich, with assertive oak but always those quintessentially Borderies aromas. Everything a traditional XO should be. Alcohol 40%


Darroze Domaine de Péré 1992 Bas-Armagnac

Top-notch Armagnac, treading a tightrope between power and grace. A blend of 40% Baco and 60% Ugni Blanc gives plenty of funky depth and dark chocolate, alongside a basket of super-ripe, juicy fruits, with cassis to the fore. Sheer decadence. Alc 56%


Hine Bonneuil 2012 Cognac

Sourced from Hine’s vineyards in the heart of Grande Champagne to highlight the vital role of the vine. Aromatic, with scents of honeysuckle and jasmine, a pinch of white pepper and a hint of hazelnut. Fresh, expressive and highly vinous. Alc 42.5%


Laballe Bas-Armagnac 12 Year Old Rich

The famille Laudet has been growing grapes on Bas-Armagnac’s fabled sables fauves for more than 200 years. This is a wonderfully poised combination of punchy grip and perfumed elegance, with a finish of caramel and sweet fruit. A great all-rounder. Alc 44.2%


Martell l’Or Zodiac, l’Assemblage du Lapin

The second release in Martell’s Zodiac series. Cellar Master Christophe Valtaud created this astonishing blend from 700 eaux-de-vie, with an emphasis on rare old Cognacs from previous Years of the Rabbit. Jasmine and chamomile meld into dried tropical fruits and fig – all slathered in rich honey. Alc 41%


Frapin 1990 30 Year Old

A voluptuous Cognac aged in humid cellars for a rounded, broad character. Dried apricot and brighter tangerine notes are accompanied by a dusting of nutmeg and scents of unlit cigar. The elusive savoury scent of long age – rancio – permeates the long finish. Alc 41.8%


Jean-Luc Pasquet L’Organic 07

Pasquet’s vineyards have been organically farmed since 1995, and this relatively youthful Cognac offers plenty of lively citrus fruit, a creamy texture and a touch of cola cube. Tension and acidity make this perfect in a refreshing Sidecar cocktail. Alc 40%


WV Baker Rare Pale Cognac No 02-15

A real curiosity: a 100% Colombard, six-year-old, single-estate, single cask Cognac. Fragrant, floral and youthful, with orchard fruits plus an edge of spice. Mix it by all means, but try it neat first – lemon verbena notes make this most un-Cognac like. Alc 43%


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